Incision of rivers in Pleistocene gravel and conglomeratic terraces: Further circumstantial evidence for the uplift of Borneo during the Neogene and Quaternary


Author : Franz L. Kessler & John JongPublication : Bulletin of the Geological Society of MalaysiaVolume : 61Page : 49 - 57Year : 2015


Description

Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia, Volume 61, December 2015, pp. 49 – 57

Incision of rivers in Pleistocene gravel and conglomeratic terraces: Further circumstantial evidence for the uplift of Borneo during the Neogene and Quaternary

Franz L. Kessler1* & John Jong2

1Independent Geoscience, Oil and Gas Consultant
2JX Nippon Oil and Gas Exploration (Deepwater Sabah) Limited
Level 51, Menara 3 PETRONAS, Persiaran KLCC, Kuala Lumpur City Centre, 50088 Kuala Lumpur
*Corresponding author: franzlkessler32@gmail.com

Abstract: Incised Pleistocene gravel beds and conglomerates are a common feature of the Baram, Limbang and Temburong drainage systems in NW Sarawak and Brunei. Incision values vary from 9 to 76 m, a likely result of strong temporary precipitation, in combination with ongoing uplift. Conglomerates and gravels are monomictic, almost exclusively formed by the Lower Miocene Meligan sandstone, and deposited in nested fluvial terraces. The described pattern differs from coastal terraces of the Miri area; the latter do not contain conglomerates other than locally-derived and recycled quartz clasts. The available age and uplift data, when plotted log-normal, suggest that the mountainous central Borneo uplift was continuous of some 6-7 mm a-1, whilst low-lying coastal wetland areas in Brunei and Sarawak may only have seen a very minor uplift in the order of 0.8 mm a-1. The uplift may be ongoing at the present day.

Keywords: NW Borneo, Neogene, Quaternary, terraces, uplift, Sarawak, Brunei, geomorphology